Pourquoi on grossit ? Épisode 1 : génétique ou calories ?

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Dans cette première vidéo de la série « Pourquoi on grossit ? », faisons un état des lieux de la situation avant de voir si la génétique ou les calories pourraient être responsable de l’épidémie d’obésité que nous connaissons depuis 30 ans.

  • L’obésité en chiffres 
    Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. The Lancet [electronic article]. 2016;387(10026):1377–1396.
    Obesity Update 2017. OCDE
    Matta J, Zins M, Feral-Pierssens AL, Carette C, Ozguler A, Goldberg M, et al. Prévalence du surpoids, de l’obésité et des facteurs de risque cardio-métaboliques dans la cohorte Constances. Bull Epidémiol Hebd. 2016;(35-36):640-6.
    Enquête épidémiologique nationale sur le surpoids et l’obésité – ObÉpi. 2012
    Maffetone PB, Rivera-Dominguez I, Laursen PB. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat. Front Public Health. 2017;5:190.
    Snook KR, Hansen AR, Duke CH, Finch KC, Hackney AA, Zhang J. Change in Percentages of Adults With Overweight or Obesity Trying to Lose Weight, 1988-2014. JAMA. 2017;317(9):971–973.
    Stokes A, Ni Y, Preston SH. Prevalence and Trends in Lifetime Obesity in the U.S., 1988–2014. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2017;53(5):567-575.
    Waters H, Graf M. America’s Obesity Crisis: The Health and Economic Costs of Excess Weight. Milken Institute. 2018
    Bentley RA, Ormerod P, Ruck DJ. Recent origin and evolution of obesity-income correlation across the United States. Palgrave Communications. 2018;4(1).

  • IMC
    Centers for Disease Control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006
    Swainson MG, Batterham AM, Tsakirides C, Rutherford ZH, Hind K. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables. Tauler P, ed. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(5):e0177175.
    Adab, P., Pallan, M., & Whincup, P. H. (2018). Is BMI the best measure of obesity? BMJ, k1274.
    Misra, A. (2015). Ethnic-Specific Criteria for Classification of Body Mass Index: A Perspective for Asian Indians and American Diabetes Association Position Statement. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 17(9), 667–671.
    WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. (2004). The Lancet, 363(9403), 157–163.

  • Paradoxe de l’obésité et santé
    Flegal, K. M. (2005). Excess Deaths Associated With Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. JAMA, 293(15), 1861. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.15.1861
    Flegal, K. M., Kit, B. K., Orpana, H., & Graubard, B. I. (2013). Association of All-Cause Mortality With Overweight and Obesity Using Standard Body Mass Index Categories. JAMA, 309(1), 71.
    George, B. J., Beasley, T. M., Brown, A. W., Dawson, J., Dimova, R., Divers, J., … Allison, D. B. (2016). Common scientific and statistical errors in obesity research. Obesity, 24(4), 781–790.
    Hughes, V. (2013). The big fat truth. Nature, 497(7450), 428–430.
    Stokes, A., & Preston, S. H. (2016). Revealing the burden of obesity using weight histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(3), 572–577.
    Wehrmeister, F. C., Menezes, A. M. B., Muniz, L. C., Martínez-Mesa, J., Domingues, M. R., & Horta, B. L. (2012). Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews, 1(1).
    Friedemann, C., Heneghan, C., Mahtani, K., Thompson, M., Perera, R., & Ward, A. M. (2012). Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 345(sep25 2), e4759–e4759.
    Ulrik, C., Trunk-Black Juel, Ali, & Nilas. (2012). Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review. Journal of Asthma and Allergy, 21.
    Adeniyi, F. B., & Young, T. (2012). Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
    Wall, H., Smith, C., & Hubbard, R. (2012). Body mass index and obstructive sleep apnoea in the UK: a cross-sectional study of the over-50s. Primary Care Respiratory Journal, 21(4), 371–376.
    Mongkolsomlit S, Patumanond J, Tawichasril C, Komoltri C, Rawdaree P. Meta-regression of risk factors for microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43(2):455–66.
    Cerimele, J. M., & Katon, W. J. (2013). Associations between health risk behaviors and symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35(1), 16–22.
    Chengxuan Qiu. (2012). Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease by Targeting Vascular Risk Factors: Hope and Gap. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 32(3), 721–731.
    Turcksin, R., Bel, S., Galjaard, S., & Devlieger, R. (2012). Maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity and duration: a systematic review. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 10(2), 166–183.
    Thangaratinam, S., Rogozińska, E., Jolly, K., Glinkowski, S., Duda, W., Borowiack, E., … Khan, K. (2012). Interventions to reduce or prevent obesity in pregnant women: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment, 16(31).
    Federico G. Mariona, Does maternal obesity impact pregnancy-related deaths? Michigan experience, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 30, 9, (1060), (2017).
    Okabayashi, K., Ashrafian, H., Hasegawa, H., Yoo, J.-H., Patel, V. M., Harling, L., … Athanasiou, T. (2012). Body Mass Index Category as a Risk Factor for Colorectal Adenomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 107(8), 1175–1185.
    Mongraw-Chaffin, M., Allison, M. A., Burke, G. L., Criqui, M. H., Matsushita, K., Ouyang, P., … Anderson, C. A. M. (2017). CT-Derived Body Fat Distribution and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(11), 4173–4183.
    Lauby-Secretan, B., Scoccianti, C., Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., Bianchini, F., & Straif, K. (2016). Body Fatness and Cancer — Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(8), 794–798.
    Padwal R, Leslie WD, Lix LM, Majumdar SR. Relationship Among Body Fat Percentage, Body Mass Index, and All-Cause Mortality: A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. ;164:532–541.
    Bell, J. A., Sabia, S., Singh-Manoux, A., Hamer, M., & Kivimäki, M. (2017). Healthy obesity and risk of accelerated functional decline and disability. International Journal of Obesity, 41(6), 866–872.
    Muzumdar, R., Allison, D. B., Huffman, D. M., Ma, X., Atzmon, G., Einstein, F. H., Fishman, S., Poduval, A. D., McVei, T., Keith, S. W. and Barzilai, N. (2008), Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity. Aging Cell, 7: 438–440.
    Magkos, F., Fraterrigo, G., Yoshino, J., Luecking, C., Kirbach, K., Kelly, S. C., … Klein, S. (2016). Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity. Cell Metabolism, 23(4), 591–601.
    Bray, G. A., Kim, K. K., & Wilding, J. P. H. (2017). Obesity: a chronic relapsing progressive disease process. A position statement of the World Obesity Federation. Obesity Reviews, 18(7), 715–723.
    Kramer, C. K., Zinman, B., & Retnakaran, R. (2013). Are Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Benign Conditions? Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(11), 758.
    Mongraw-Chaffin, M., Allison, M. A., Burke, G. L., Criqui, M. H., Matsushita, K., Ouyang, P., … Anderson, C. A. M. (2017). CT-Derived Body Fat Distribution and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(11), 4173–4183.
    Caleyachetty, R., Thomas, G. N., Toulis, K. A., Mohammed, N., Gokhale, K. M., Balachandran, K., & Nirantharakumar, K. (2017). Metabolically Healthy Obese and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Events Among 3.5 Million Men and Women. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(12), 1429–1437.
    Carslake, D., Davey Smith, G., Gunnell, D., Davies, N., Nilsen, T. I. L., & Romundstad, P. (2017). Confounding by ill health in the observed association between BMI and mortality: evidence from the HUNT Study using offspring BMI as an instrument. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 760–770.
    Eckel, N., Li, Y., Kuxhaus, O., Stefan, N., Hu, F. B., & Schulze, M. B. (2018). Transition from metabolic healthy to unhealthy phenotypes and association with cardiovascular disease risk across BMI categories in 90 257 women (the Nurses’ Health Study): 30 year follow-up from a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6(9), 714–724.
    Espinosa De Ycaza, A., Donegan, D., & Jensen, M. D. (2017). Long-term metabolic risk for the metabolically healthy overweight/obese phenotype. International Journal of Obesity, 42(3), 302–309.
    Khan SS, Ning H, Wilkins JT, et al. Association of Body Mass Index With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Compression of Morbidity. JAMA Cardiol. 2018;3(4):280–287.
    AE Espinosa De Ycaza, D Donegan & M D Jensen. Long-term metabolic risk for the metabolically healthy overweight/obese phenotype. International Journal of Obesity volume 42, 302–309 (2018)
    Bradshaw, P. T., Reynolds, K. R., Wagenknecht, L. E., Ndumele, C. E., & Stevens, J. (2017). Incidence of components of metabolic syndrome in the metabolically healthy obese over 9 years follow-up: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study. International Journal of Obesity, 42(3), 295–301.
    Abramowitz, M. K., Hall, C. B., Amodu, A., Sharma, D., Androga, L., & Hawkins, M. (2018). Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study. PLOS ONE, 13(4), e0194697.
    Mora-Rodriguez, R., Ortega, J. F., Morales-Palomo, F., & Ramirez-Jimenez, M. (2018). Weight loss but not gains in cardiorespiratory fitness after exercise-training predicts improved health risk factors in metabolic syndrome. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 28(12), 1267–1274.

  • Fatshaming
    Jackson SE, Beeken RJ, Wardle J. Perceived weight discrimination and changes in weight, waist circumference, and weight status. Obesity. 2014;22(12):2485–8.
    Schvey, N. A., Puhl, R. M., & Brownell, K. D. (2011). The Impact of Weight Stigma on Caloric Consumption. Obesity, 19(10), 1957–1962.

  • Génétique
    Curtis M. The obesity epidemic in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Development and Social transformation. 2005. [February 8, 2013].
    Cassels S. (2006). Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Globalization and health, 2, 10. doi:10.1186/1744-8603-2-10
    Schulz, L. O., & Chaudhari, L. S. (2015). High-Risk Populations: The Pimas of Arizona and Mexico. Current Obesity Reports, 4(1), 92–98.
    Huypens, P., Sass, S., Wu, M., Dyckhoff, D., Tschöp, M., Theis, F., … Beckers, J. (2016). Epigenetic germline inheritance of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Nature Genetics, 48(5), 497–499.
    Wang, G., & Speakman, J. R. (2016). Analysis of Positive Selection at Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Body Mass Index Does Not Support the “Thrifty Gene” Hypothesis. Cell Metabolism, 24(4), 531–541.
    Dolton, P., & Xiao, M. (2017). The intergenerational transmission of body mass index across countries. Economics & Human Biology, 24, 140–152.
    Martens, D. S., Plusquin, M., Gyselaers, W., De Vivo, I., & Nawrot, T. S. (2016). Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and newborn telomere length. BMC Medicine, 14(1).
    Jermendy, A. L., Kolossvary, M., Drobni, Z. D., Tarnoki, A. D., Tarnoki, D. L., Karady, J., … Maurovich-Horvat, P. (2017). Assessing genetic and environmental influences on epicardial and abdominal adipose tissue quantities: a classical twin study. International Journal of Obesity, 42(2), 163–168.
    Chamoun, E., Hutchinson, J., Krystia, O., Mirotta, J., Mutch, D., … Buchholz, A. (2018). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study. Nutrients, 10(2), 153.
    Ghosh, S., & Bouchard, C. (2017). Convergence between biological, behavioural and genetic determinants of obesity. Nature Reviews Genetics, 18(12), 731–748.
    Konttinen, H., Llewellyn, C., Silventoinen, K., Joensuu, A., Männistö, S., Salomaa, V., … Haukkala, A. (2017). Genetic predisposition to obesity, restrained eating and changes in body weight: a population-based prospective study. International Journal of Obesity, 42(4), 858–865.

  • Calories – Général
    Fothergill, E., Guo, J., Howard, L., Kerns, J. C., Knuth, N. D., Brychta, R., … Hall, K. D. (2016). Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity, 24(8), 1612–1619.
    Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., & Peters, J. C. (2012). Energy Balance and Obesity. Circulation, 126(1), 126–132.
    Drenowatz, C., & Greier, K. (2017). The Role of Energy Flux in Weight Management. Exercise Medicine, 1, 4.
    Pietiläinen, K. H., Korkeila, M., Bogl, L. H., Westerterp, K. R., Yki-Järvinen, H., Kaprio, J., & Rissanen, A. (2009). Inaccuracies in food and physical activity diaries of obese subjects: complementary evidence from doubly labeled water and co-twin assessments. International Journal of Obesity, 34(3), 437–445.

  • Calories – Définition
    Kenneth J. Carpenter; The Life and Times of W. O. Atwater (1844–1907), The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 124, Issue suppl_9, 1 September 1994, Pages 1707S–1714S,
    Atwater, W.O. & Woods, C.S., 1896. The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. Bulletin 28. USDA. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office
    Bender, M.M & Rader, J.I., 1998 (updated 2003). Guidance for Industry: Nutrition Labeling Manual – A Guide for Developing and Using Data Bases.
    College Park, MD: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Section 23CRF101.9(g)
    Greenfield, H., 2003 (updated 2014). Food composition data: Production, management and use. Burlingame, B.A. & Charrondiere, U.R. (Eds.), Rome, Italy.: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
    Klaas R. Westerterp, “Diet Induced Thermogenesis,” Nutrition and Metabolism 1 (2004): 5.
    Groopman, E. E., Carmody, R. N., & Wrangham, R. W. (2014). Cooking increases net energy gain from a lipid-rich food. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 156(1), 11–18.
    Boback, S. M., Cox, C. L., Ott, B. D., Carmody, R., Wrangham, R. W., & Secor, S. M. (2007). Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 148(3), 651–656.

  • Calories – Comptage
    Barr S, Wright J. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure. Food & Nutrition Research [Internet]. 2Jul.2010
    Evenepoel, P., Claus, D., Geypens, B., Hiele, M., Geboes, K., Rutgeerts, P., & Ghoos, Y. (1999). Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 277(5), G935–G943.
    Barr, S., & Wright, J. (2010). Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure. Food & Nutrition Research, 54(1), 5144.
    Bender, M.M & Rader, J.I., 1998 (updated 2003). Guidance for Industry: Nutrition Labeling Manual – A Guide for Developing and Using Data Bases.
    College Park, MD: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Section 23CRF101.9(g)
    Greenfield, H., 2003 (updated 2014). Food composition data: Production, management and use. Burlingame, B.A. & Charrondiere, U.R. (Eds.), Rome, Italy.: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
    Baer DJ, Gebauer SK, Novotny JA. Walnuts Consumed by Healthy Adults Provide Less Available Energy than Predicted by the Atwater Factors. J Nutr. 2016 Jan;146(1):9-13. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.217372.
    Baer DJ, Gebauer SK, Novotny JA. Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet. Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan;107(1):120-5.
    Livesey G. A perspective on food energy standards for nutrition labelling. Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):271-87. Review.
    Livesey G. Metabolizable energy of macronutrients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Nov;62(5 Suppl):1135S-1142S. Review.
    Menezes EW, Grande F, Giuntini EB, Lopes Tdo V, Dan MC, Prado SB, Franco BD, Charrondière UR, Lajolo FM. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database. Food Chem. 2016 Feb 15;193:128-33.
    Merrill,A. L., and Watt, B. K. 1973. Energy value of foods. USDA Agriculture Handbook No.74. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agricultural Research Service.
    Novotny JA, Gebauer SK, Baer DJ. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;96(2):296-301. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.035782. Epub 2012 Jul 3.
    Nestle, M. & Nesheim, M. 2012.Why Calories Count: From Science to Politics. London, England: University of California Press.
    Zou ML, Moughan PJ, Awati A, Livesey G. Accuracy of the Atwater factors and related food energy conversion factors with low-fat, high-fiber diets when energy intake is reduced spontaneously. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1649-56.
    Carmody RN, Wrangham RW. The energetic significance of cooking. J Hum Evol.
    Carmody RN, Weintraub GS, Wrangham RW. Energetic consequences of thermal and nonthermal food processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 29;108(48):19199-203.
    Groopman EE, Carmody RN, Wrangham RW. Cooking increases net energy gain from a lipid-rich food. American journal of physical anthropology. 2015;156(1):11-18.
    Jumpertz R, Le DS, Turnbaugh PJ, Trinidad C, Bogardus C, Gordon JI, Krakoff J. Energy-balance studies reveal associations between gut microbes, caloric load, and nutrient absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):58-65.
    Heymsfield SB, Pietrobelli A. Individual differences in apparent energy digestibility are larger than generally recognized. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1650-1.
    Backstrand J, Wootan MG, Young LR, Hurley J. 1997. Fat chance. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC
    Burrows, Marian. “Losing count of calories as plates fill up.” The New York Times. April 2, 1997.
    Carels RA, Harper J, Konrad K. Qualitative perceptions and caloric estimations of healthy and unhealthy foods by behavioral weight loss participants. Appetite. 2006 Mar;46(2):199-206.
    Carels RA, Konrad K, Harper J. Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: an examination of dieting status, weight, and gender. Appetite. 2007 Sep;49(2):450-8.
    Lansky D, Brownell KD. Estimates of food quantity and calories: errors in self-report among obese patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Apr;35(4):727-32.
    Oakes ME, Slotterback CS. The good, the bad, and the ugly: characteristics used by young, middle-aged, and older men and women, dieters and non-dieters to judge healthfulness of foods. Appetite. 2002 Apr;38(2):91-7.
    Feinman RD, Fine EJ. “A calorie is a calorie” violates the second law of thermodynamics. Nutr J. 2004 Jul 28;3:9.
    Hume DJ, et al. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 . Jun;103(6):1389-96.
    Cassady, B. A., Hollis, J. H., Fulford, A. D., Considine, R. V., & Mattes, R. D. (2009). Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(3), 794–800.
    Ellis, P. R., Kendall, C. W., Ren, Y., Parker, C., Pacy, J. F., Waldron, K. W., & Jenkins, D. J. (2004). Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(3), 604–613.
    Novotny, J. A., Gebauer, S. K., & Baer, D. J. (2012). Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(2), 296–301.
    Baer, D. J., Gebauer, S. K., & Novotny, J. A. (2015). Walnuts Consumed by Healthy Adults Provide Less Available Energy than Predicted by the Atwater Factors. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(1), 9–13.
    Smith, M. R., & Myers, S. S. (2018). Impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on global human nutrition. Nature Climate Change, 8(9), 834–839.

  • Calories consommées
    Steenhuis I, Poelman M. Portion size: latest developments and interventions. Curr Obes Rep 2017;6:10-17.
    Hall KD, Guo J, Dore M, Chow CC. The progressive increase of food waste in America and its environmental impact. PLoS One 2009;4:e7940. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0007940
    French SA, Mitchell NR, Wolfson J, Harnack LJ, Jeffery RW, Gerlach AF, et al. Portion size effects on weight gain in a free living setting. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(6):1400–5.
    http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/93/7/14-150565/en/
    Daily caloric supply (kcal/person/day), UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
    Floud, Fogel, Harris, and Hong (2011) – The Changing Body Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World Since 1700.

  • Activité physique
    Vandevijvere, S., Chow, C. C., Hall, K. D., Umali, E., & Swinburn, B. A. (2015). Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 93(7), 446–456.
    Hall, K. D., Schoeller, D. A., & Brown, A. W. (2018). Reducing Calories to Lose Weight. JAMA, 319(22), 2336.
    Di Blasio, A., et al. Walking training in postmenopause: effects on both spontaneous physical activity and training-induced body adaptations. Menopause. 19(1):23-32, 2012
    Alahmadi, M.A., et al. Exercise intensity influences nonexercise activity thermogenesis in overweight and obese adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 43(4):624-631, 2011.
    Wasenius, N., et al. Unfavorable influence of structured exercise program on total leisure-time physical activity. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 24(2):404-413, 2014
    Prince, S.A., et al. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 5:56, 2008.
    Étude de santé sur l’environnement, la biosurveillance, l’activité physique et la nutrition (Esteban 2014-2016). Santé Publique France
    omkinson, G. R., Lang, J. J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2017). Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2017-097982.
    Ostendorf, D. M., Lyden, K., Pan, Z., Wyatt, H. R., Hill, J. O., Melanson, E. L., & Catenacci, V. A. (2017). Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Successful Weight Loss Maintainers. Obesity, 26(1), 53–60.
    Swift, D. L., McGee, J. E., Earnest, C. P., Carlisle, E., Nygard, M., & Johannsen, N. M. (2018). The Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity on Weight Loss and Maintenance. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 61(2), 206–213.
    Luo, S., O’Connor, S. G., Belcher, B. R., & Page, K. A. (2018). Effects of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Brain Response to High-Calorie Food Cues in Young Adults. Obesity, 26(3), 540–546.
    Foright, R. M., Presby, D. M., Sherk, V. D., Kahn, D., Checkley, L. A., Giles, E. D., … MacLean, P. S. (2018). Is regular exercise an effective strategy for weight loss maintenance? Physiology & Behavior, 188, 86–93.
    King, N. A., Hopkins, M., Caudwell, P., Stubbs, R. J., & Blundell, J. E. (2007). Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss. International Journal of Obesity, 32(1), 177–184.
    Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2018). Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1·9 million participants. The Lancet Global Health, 6(10), e1077–e1086.
    Thomas, D. M., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2016). Exercise: Is More Always Better? Current Biology, 26(3), R102–R104.
    Beaulieu, K., Hopkins, M., Blundell, J., & Finlayson, G. (2018). Homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite control along the spectrum of physical activity levels: An updated perspective. Physiology & Behavior, 192, 23–29.
    Wiklund, P. (2016). The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management: Time for critical appraisal. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(2), 151–154.
    Hume DJ, et al. Low energy intake plus low energy expenditure (low energy flux), not energy surfeit, predicts future body fat gain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 . Jun;103(6):1389-96.

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23 Commentaires

  1. Bonjour Benjamin,
    Toujours aussi bien documentées tes vidéos et extrêmement instructives !
    J’ai hâte d’écouter la suite , merci pour cet énorme travail !!

  2. Bravo pour la pédagogie. J’ai pu vérifier ces dires avec mon cas personnel qui m’a permis de perdre 15 kg en un an, uniquement en supprimant : gluten, lactose et sucres. Mon poids est stable depuis 2 ans, et ce, sans me soucier de la quantité des « bons aliments » que je mange actuellement. Par contre personne n’a pu obtenir mes résultats dans mon entourage. La réponse sera peut-être dans les prochaines vidéos …

  3. Bonjour,

    Vidéo très intéressante et bien documentée où j’ai appris beaucoup de choses.
    Petite question, cela veut-il dire que pour quelqu’un qui cherche à perdre du poids il vaut mieux manger des amandes entières que de la purée car le corps utilise plus d’énergie pour les digérer?

    1. Oui il vaut mieux dans l’absolu, car en plus la mastication augmente la satiété, avec 2 précisions : la différence, c’est moins d’énergie disponible surtout plutôt que plus d’énergie dépensée, et ce n’est pas ça qui va créer tout seul un déficit calorique suffisant évidemment.

  4. Travail très fouillé, très précis, bravo.
    Mais je regrette la théorie du développement cérébral avec la cuisson des aliments, c’est totalement fantasmatique, c’est absolument faux.
    Vous ne parlez pas des jus crus, qui permettent de façon optimale, la micro-nutrition sans aucune dépense énergétique et produit le maximum de bénéfice énergétique en favorisant la perte de poids si on sait manier les associations.

  5. Merci pour cette vidéo et pour tes recherches.
    18min57 petite coquille ou tu dis qu’il faut être au « dessus » au lieu d’en « dessous » 0.5 pour être en bonne santé comme montré dans le diapo 🙂

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